section i use of english
read thc following text.choose the bcsl word(s) for each numbcred blank.and mark[a]，[b]，[c]or[d]on answer sheet 1. (10 points)
in 1924 american' national research council sent to engineer to supervise a series of experiments at a telephone-parts factory called the hawhtore plant near
chicago it hoped they would learn how stop-floor egnting __1__ workors productivity instead，the studies ended__2__ giving their name to the“hawhthome
effect”the extremely inflentlcel ldea the veey__3__to bemg expenmented upon changed subjects’behavior
the idea arose because of the__4__behavior of the women in the plato.accordmg to __5__of the cxpetmems.their.houriy output rose when hghtmg was
increased.but also when it was dimmed. it did not __6__what was done in the expenment. __7__sometmg was changed.produchnty rose a(n) __8__ that they
were bemg experimented upon seemed to be __9__t0 alterworkers' bchamor __10__ uself
after several decades，the salile data were __11__to econometric the analysis hawthorne experiments has another surprise store j2一the descnpuons on record，no
systematic __13__was foundthat lcvcls of produchxnty wererelated to changes in lighting
it turns out that peculiar way of conducting the c~enments may be have let to __14__interpretation of what happed.__15__，tighring was always changed on
a sunday when work started again on monday, output __16__ rose compared with the previous saturday and __17__ to rise for the next couple of days __18__ , ，
a comparison with data for weeks whenthere was no expenmentation showed that output always went up on monday, workers __19__to be duigent for the first few
days of the week in any case，before __21__a plateau and then slackening off this suggests that the alleged” hawthorne effect“is hard to ptn down
1.[a] affected [b]achieved [c]exlracted [d]restored
2[a]at [b]up [c]with [d]off
3[a]wuth [b]sight [c]act [d]proof
4.[a]convoversial [b]perplexing [c]mischieous [d]ambiguous
5.[a]reqtttrents [b]cxplanalions [c]accounts [d]assements
6[a]conclude [b]matter [c]indicate [d]work
7[a]as faras [b]for fearthat [c]in casethat [d]so long as
8.[a]awarerre[b]expectation [c]sentiment [d]illusion
9.[a]suitale [b]excessive [c]enough [d]abundant
10.[a]about [b]for [c]on [d]by
11[a]compared [b]shown [c]subjected [d]conveyed
12.[a]contrary to [b]consistent with [c]parallel with [d]pealliar to
13.[a]evidence [b]guidance [c]implication [d]source
14.[a]disputable [b]enlightening [c]retiable [d]wasleadmg
15.[a]in contast [b]for example [c]in consequence [d]as usual
16.[a]duly [b]accidentally [c]unpredictably [d]suddenly
17.[a]failed [b]ceased [c]started [d]continued
he emerged, all of a sudden, in 1957: the most explosive new poetic talent of the english post-war era. poetry specialised, at that moment, in the wry chronicling of the everyday. the poetry of yorkshire-born ted hughes, first published in a book called "the hawk in the rain" when he was 27, was unlike anything written by his immediate predecessors. driven by an almost jacobean rhetoric, it had a visionary fervour. its most eye-catching characteristic was hughes’s ability to get beneath the skins of animals: foxes, otters, pigs. these animals were the real thing all right, but they were also armorial devices-symbols of the countryside and lifeblood of the earth in which they were rooted. it gave his work a raw, primal stink.
it was not only england that thought so either. hughes’s book was also published in america, where it won the galbraith prize, a major literary award. but then, in 1963, sylvia plath, a young american poet whom he had first met at cambridge university in 1956, and who became his wife in the summer of that year, committed suicide. hughes was vilified for long after that, especially by feminists in america. in 1998, the year he died, hughes broke his own self-imposed public silence about their relationship in a book of loose-weave poems called "birthday letters".in this new and exhilarating collection of real letters, hughes returns to the issue of his first wife’s death, which he calls his "big and unmanageable event". he felt his talent muffled by the perpetual eavesdropping upon his every move. not until he decided to publish his own account of their relationship did the burden begin to lighten.
the analysis is raw, pained and ruthlessly self-aware. for all the moral torment, the writing itself has the same rush and vigour that possessed hughes’s early poetry. some books of letters serve as a personalised historical chronicle. poets’ letters are seldom like that, and hughes’s are no exception. his are about a life of literary engagement: almost all of them include some musing on the state or the nature of writing, both hughes’s own or other people’s. the trajectory of hughes’s literary career had him moving from obscurity to fame, and then, in the eyes of many, to life-long notoriety. these letters are filled with his wrestling with the consequences of being the part-private, part-public creature that he became, desperate to devote himself to his writing, and yet subject to endless invasions of his privacy.
hughes is an absorbing and intricate commentator upon his own poetry, even when he is standing back from it and good-humouredly condemning himself for "its fantasticalia, its pretticisms and its infinite verballifications". he also believed, from first to last, that poetry had a special place in the education of children. "what kids need", he wrote in a 1988 letter to the secretary of state for education in the conservative government, "is a headfull [sic] of songs that are not songs but blocks of refined and achieved and exemplary language." when that happens, children have "the guardian angel installed behind the tongue". lucky readers, big or small.
1.the poetry of hughes’s forerunners is characteristic of ______
[a] its natural, crude flavor.
[b] its distorted depiction of people’s daily life.
[c] its penetrating sight.
[d] its fantastical enthusiasm.
2.the word "vilified" most probably means _____
3.according to the third paragraph, hughes’s collection of letters are _____
[a] personal recollection of his life.
[b] personalised historical chronicle of his literary engagement.
[c] reflections of his struggle with his devotion and the reality.
[d] his meditation on the literary world.
4. from the letters, we may find the cause of hughes’s internal struggle is _____
[a] his devotion to the literary world.
[b] that he is a part-private, part-public creature.
[c] that he is constrained by the fear of his privacy being invaded.
[d] his fame and notoriety.
5. by "lucky readers" in the last sentence, the author means_____
[a] children who read poetry.
[b] children who have a headfull of songs.
[c] children who own blocks of refined and achieved and exemplary language.
[d] children who have the guardian angel installed behind the tongue
sectionⅰuse of english
read the following text. choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark a，b，c or d on the answer sheet.(10 points)
in cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. it may involve not only his parents and his friends, _1_ those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. a young man can __2_ a likely spouse on his own andthen ask his parents to 3 the marriage negotiations, or the young man'sparents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in theselection. 4, a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. 5aspouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying 6 a good family.
the traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. formerly it lasted three days, _ 7 _ by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. buddhist priests offer a short sermon and _ 8 _ prayers of blessing. parts of the ceremony the bride’s and groom’s wrists, and 10 a candle around a circle of happily in with the wife’s parents and may 12 with them up to a year, 13 they can build a new house nearby.
divorce is legal and easy to 14 , but not common. divorced persons are 15 with some disapproval. each sprouse retains 16 property he or she 17 into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is 18 equally. divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice 19 up: the divorced male doesn’t have a waiting period before he can remarry 20 the woman must wait ten months.
1.[a]by way of[b]on behalf of [c]as well as [d]with regard to
2.[a]adapt to [b]provide for [c]compete with [d]decide on
3.[a]close [b]renew [c]arrange [d]postpone
4.[a]above all [b]in theory [c]in time [d]for example
5.[a]although [b]lest [c]after [d]unless
6.[a]into [b]within [c]from [d]through
7.[a]since [b]but [c]or [d]so
8.[a]copy [b]test [c]recite [d]create
9.[a]folding [b]piling [c]wrapping [d]tying
10.[a]passing [b]lighting[c]hiding [d]serving
11. [a]meeting [b]collection [c]association [d]union
12. [a]grow [b]part [c]deal [d]live
13. [a]whereas [b]until [c]if [d]for
14. [a]obtain [b]follow [c]challenge [d]avoid
15. [a]isolated [b]persuaded [c]viewed [d]exposed
16. [a]whatever [b]however [c]whenever [d]wherever
19. [a]breaks [b]warms [c]shows [d]clears
20.[a]so [b]while [c]once [d]in that
france, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runaways. the parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.
such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. they suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. that’s a start. and the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death-as some have done. it tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.
the bans, if fully enforced,would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. and perhaps faintly,they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.
the french measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep-and bone-showing. under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.
the fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. in denmark, the united states, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.
in contrast to france’s actions, denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. the newly revised danish fashion ethical charter clearly states: “we are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.” the charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to copenhagen fashion week (cfw), which is run by the danish fashion institute. but in general it relies on a name-and-shame method of compliance.
relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.
21. according to the first paragraph, what would happen in france?
[a]new runways would be constructed.
[b]physical beauty would be redefined.
[c]websites about dieting would thrive.
[d]the fashion industry would decline.
22. the phrase “impinging on” (line2, para.2) is closest in meaning to
[a]heightening the value of.
[b]indicating the state of.
[c]losing faith in.
[d]doing harm to.
23. which of the following is true of the fashion industry?
[a]new standards are being set in denmark.
[b]the french measures have already failed.
[c]models are no longer under peer pressure.
[d]its inherent problems are getting worse.
24. a designer is most likely to be rejected by cfw for
[a]pursuing perfect physical conditions.
[b]caring too much about models’ character.
[c]showing little concern for health factors.
[d]setting a high age threshold for models.
25. which of the following may be the best title of the text?
[a]a challenge to the fashion industry’s body ideals
[b]a dilemma for the starving models in france
[c]just another round of struggle for beauty
[d]the great threats to the fashion industry
for the first time in history more people live in towns than in the country. in britain this has had a curious result. while polls show britons rate “the countryside” alongside the royal family, shakespeare and the national health service (nhs) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.
a century ago octavia hill launched the national trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save “the beauty of natural places for everyone forever.” it was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience “a refreshing air.” hill’s pressures later led to the creation of national parks and green belts. they don’t make countryside any more, and every year concrete consumes more of it. it needs constant guardianship.
at the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. the conservatives’ planning reform explicitly gives rural development priority over conservation, even authorizing“off-plan” building where local people might object. the concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. the liberal democrats are silent. only ukip, sensing its chance, has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. its campaign to protect rural england struck terror into many local conservative parties.
the sensible place to build new houses, factories and offices is where people are, in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. the london agents stirlingackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the london area alone, with no intrusion on green belt. what is true of london is even truer of the provinces.
the idea that “housing crisis” equals “concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. the issue is not the need for more houses but, as always, where to put them. under lobby pressure, george osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. he favours out-of-town shopping sites against high streets. this is not a free market but a biased one. rural towns and villages have grown and will always grow. they do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. we do not ruin urban conservation areas. why ruin rural ones?
development should be planned, not let rip. after the netherlands, britain is europe’s most crowded country. half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. there is no doubt of the alternative—the corrupted landscapes of southern portugal, spain or ireland. avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite the left and right of the political spectrum.
26. britain’s public sentiment about the countryside____
[a]didn’tstart till the shakespearean age.
[b]has brought much benefit to the nhs.
[c]is fully backed by the royal family.
[d]is not well reflected in politics.
27. according to paragraph 2, the achievements of the national trust are now being____
28. which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3?
[a]labour is under attack for opposing development.
[b]the conservatives may abandon “off-plan” building.
[c]the liberal democrats are losing political influence.
[d]ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation.
29. the author holds that george osborne’s preference____
[a]highlights his firm stand against lobby pressure.
[b]shows his disregard for the character of rural areas.
[c]stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis.
[d]reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas.
30. in the last paragraph, the author shows his appreciation of____
[a]the size of population in britain.
[b]the political life in today’s britain.
[c]the enviable urban lifestyle in britain.
[d]the town-and-country planning in britain.
“there is one and only one social responsibility of business,” wrote milton friedman,a nobel prize-winning economist “that is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” but even if you accept fiedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (csr) policies as a waste of shareholders money,things may not be absolutely clear-cut.new research suggests that csr may create monetary value for companies –at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.
the largest firms is america and britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on csr , according to an estimate by epg,a consulting firm ,this could add value to their businesses in three ways.first, consumers may take csr spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality.second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes is helps. and third, through a more diffuse “halo effect,” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.
previous studies on csr have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. a recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under america’s foreign corrupt practices act (fcpa). it argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company's products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect.
the study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensivecsr programmes tendedto getmore lenient penalties. their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firms' political influence, rather than their csr stand,that accounted for the leniency: companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.
in all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seen to influenced by a company’s record in csr. "we estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern, such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving by about 20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials," says one researcher.
researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on csr. nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies. but at least have demonstrated that whencompanies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them a less costly punishment.
31. the author views milton friedman’s statement about csr with
32. according to paragraph 2, csr helps a company
[al winning trust from consumers.
[b] guarding it against malpractices.
[c] protecting it from being defamed.
[d] raising the quality of its products.
33.theexpression "more lenient" (line 2, para. 4)is closestin meaning to
[al more effective.
[b] less controversial.
[c] less severe.
[d] more lasting.
34. when prosecutors evaluate a case, a company's csr record
[al has an impact on their decision.
[b] comes across as reliable evidence.
[c]increases the chance of being penalized.
[d] constitutes part of the investigation.
35. which of the following is true of csr, according to the last paragraph ?
[al its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked.
[b]thenecessaryamount of companies'spending on it is unknown.
[c] companies' financial capacityforithasbeenoverestimated.
there will eventually come a day when the new york times cases to publish stories on newsprint .exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. “sometime in the future “the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.
nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside ,there’s plenty of incentive to ditch print .the infrastructure required to make a physical newspapers -printing presses .delivery truck -isn’t just expensive ;it’s excessive at a time when online-only competition don’t have the same set financial constraints . readers are migrating away from print away,and although print ad sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts revenue from print is still declining.
overhead may be high and circulation lowe ,but rushing to eliminate its print editor would be a mistake ,says buzzfeed ceo jonah peretti.
peretti says the times shouldn't waste time getting of the print business, only if they go about doing it the right away “figuring out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense for them “he said, “but if you discontinue it, you're going to have your most loyal customers really upset with you."
sometimes that's worth making a change anyway". peretti gives example of netflix discontinuing its dvd-mailing service to focus on streaming. "it was seen as a blunder." he said. the move turned out to be foresighted. and if peretti were in charge at the times? "l wouldn't pick year to end print."he said. “i would raise and make it into more of a legacy product.”
the most loyal costumer would still gel the product they favor. the idea goes, and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. "so if you're overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping," peretti said. "then increase it at rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue." in other words, if you're going to print product, make it for the people who are already obsessed with it. which may be what the times is doing already. getting the print edition seven days a week costs nearly $500 a year — more than twice as much as a digital-only subscription.
"it's a really hard thing to do and it's a tremendous luxury that buzzfeed doesn't have a legacy business," peretti remarked. "but we're going to have questions like that where we have things we're doing that don't make sense when the market.change and the world changes. in those situations, it's better to be more aggressive than less aggressive."
36.the new york times is considering ending its print edition partly due
[a]the high cost of operation.
[b]the pressure form its investors.
[c]the complaints form its readers
[d]the increasing online ad asles.
37.peretti suggests that,in face of the present situation,the times should
[a]seek new sources of readership.
[b]end the print edition for goog.
[c]aim for efficitent management.
[d]make strategic adiustments.
38.it can inferred form paragraphs 5 and 6 that a “legacy product”
[a]helps restore the glory of former times.
[b]is meant for the most loyal customers.
[c]will have the cost of printing reduced.
[d]expands the popularity of the paper
39.peretti believes that,in a changing world,
[a]legacy businesses are becoming outdated
[b]cautiousness facilitates problem-solving.
[c]aggressiveness better meets challenges.
[d]traditional luxuries can stay unaffected.
40.which of the following would be the best title of the text?
[a]shift to online newspapers all at once
[b]cherish the newspapers still in your hand
[c]make your print newspaper a luxury good
[d]keep your newspapers forever in fashion
reading the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list a—g for each of the numbered paragraphs(41—45)，there are two extrasubheadings,mark your answers on the answer sheet.(10points)
[a]create a new image of yourself
[b]have confidence in yourself
[c]decide if the time is right
[d]understand the context
[e]work with professionals
[f]mark it efficient
[g]know your goals
no matter how formal orinformal theworkenvironment,the way you present yourself has an impact.this isespecially truein first impressions.according to researchfrom princetonuniversity, people assessyour competence,trustworthiness, and likeability in just a tenth of a second, solelybased ontheway you look.
the different between today’sworkplace and the “dress for success”era is that the range of optionsis so muchbroader. normshaveevolvedandfragmented.in some settings, red sneakers or dress t—shirts can conveystatus;inother not somuch. plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social—media services like linkedin.chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than adecade or two ago.millennials, it seems, face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding.it can beconfusing.
so how do we navigate this?how do we know when to invest in anupgrade?and what’s the best way to pull off one that enhances our goals?here are some tips:
as an executive coach, i’ve seen image upgrades be particularlyhelpfulduring transitions—when looking for a new job , stepping into a new or morepublic role ,or changing work environments. if you’re in a period of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. if you’re not sure, ask forhonest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and professionals .look for cues
about how others perceive you. maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s ok.
get clear on what impact you’re hoping to have. are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? for one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. for another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. for someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look ore “soho.” (it’s ok to use characterizations like that.)
look at your work environment like an anthropologist. what are the norms of your environment? what conveys status? who are your most important audience? how do the people you respect and look up to prevent themselves? the better you understand the cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact.
enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like crew. try a hair stylist instead of a barber. work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse of friend. it’s not as expensive as you might think.
the point of a style upgrade isn’t to become more vain or to spend more time discussing over what to wear. instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. pick a standard work uniform or a few go-to opinions. buy all your clothes once with a stylist instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing a time.
read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into chinese. your translation should be written neatly on the answer sheet. (10 points)
mental health is our birthright. (46) we don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone. mental health can't be learned, only reawakened. it is like the immune system of the body, which under stress or through lack of nutrition or exercise can be weakened, but which never leaves us. when we don't understand the value of mental health and we don't know how to gain access to it, mental health will remain hidden from us. (47) our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud. it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.
mental health is the seed that contains self-esteem — confidence in ourselves and an ability to trust in our common sense. it allows us to have perspective on our lives — the ability to not take ourselves too seriously, to laugh at ourselves, to see the bigger picture, and to see that things will work out. it's a form of innate or unlearned optimism. (48) mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles with kindness if they are in pain and with unconditional love no matter who they are. mental health is the source of creativity for solving problems, resolving conflict, making our surroundings more beautiful, managing our home life, or coming up with a creative business idea or invention to make our lives easier. it gives us patience for ourselves and toward others as well as patience while driving, catching a fish, working on our car. or raising a child. it allows us to see the beauty that surrounds us each moment in nature, in culture, in the flow of our daily lives.
(49)although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives, it is perfectly ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions. it has been available even in the most mundane of life situations to show you right from wrong, good from bad, friend from foe. mental health has commonly been called conscience, instinct, wisdom, common sense, or the inner voice. we think of it simply as a healthy and helpful flow of intelligent thought. (50) as you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.
suppose you are a librarian in your university. write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.
you should write neatly on the answer sheet.
do not sign your own name at the end of the notice. use “li ming” instead.
do not write the address. (10 points)
write an essay of 160—200 words based on the foiiowing pictures.in your essay,you should
1) describe the pictures briefly,
2) interpret the meaning,and
3) give your comments.
you should write neatly on the answer sheet.(20 points)